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Незвуковая аргументация :)

Запись от Злое Сердце размещена 15.07.2010 в 17:37
Обновил(-а) Злое Сердце 15.07.2010 в 20:37

Вот думаю: размещат ли это в какой-нибудь деревянной ветке?

March 1998
Scientific American Magazine


At a recent conference on music and human adaptation at Virginia Tech, physicist John W. Coltman demonstrated what he first described in the early 1970s. After asking the attendees to divert their eyes, he played the same tune twice on the flute. He then asked whether anyone heard any difference between the two performances. No one spoke up; the two were virtually indistinguishable.

Then Coltman revealed his trick. The first time he performed the tune, he played it on a simple side-blown flute made of lightweight cherry wood. The second time he used a flute of identical design, except for one detail: it was made of concrete.

To anyone schooled in the physics of wind instruments, Coltman's point is old news. Whether the air is set to vibrate by an edge tone as on the flute, by a reed as with the clarinet or by buzzing lips as with the French horn, the sound itself comes from the vibrating air column inside the instrument. This sound is produced through the end or through open tone holes, not by vibrations of the instrument's body, as is true of string instruments. Dozens of published reports, some dating back 100 years, converge toward the same general conclusion: so long as the walls are thick enough to remain rigid--about 0.4 millimeter (0.016 inch) for metals, two millimeters ) for woods--and the inside walls are smooth, the kind of material used for a wind instrument is, for the most part, immaterial.

But to many musicians, even a mountain of research remains unpersuasive. "We all know that wood flutes are much more dolce, much sweeter," says flutist Paula Robison. In contrast, "a gold flute sounds like an instrument made of gold. The silver flutes are much more perky."

The variation in timbre of wood and metal instruments stems from differences in acoustic dimensions brought about by the manufacturing process, not by the materials per se, says Robin Jakeways, a physicist at the University of Leeds. For example, holes in wood flutes are simply drilled in, whereas metal flutes have holes enclosed in a short length of pipe. Brian Holmes, a physicist at San Jose State University and a professional horn player, cites a study that found that plastic and metal clarinets had tone holes with much sharper edges than their wood counterparts. When these holes were rounded off, these clarinets sounded much more like wood ones. Materials also differ in their ability to conduct heat and vibrations. "While those vibrations may not affect the sound significantly, they certainly affect how the instrumentalist interacts with the instrument," Holmes explains. After spending a premium for an instrument made of expensive material, it's only human to convince yourself that you must sound better. And, as flutist James Galway points out, the workmanship of an instrument made of $70,000 worth of platinum is likely to be of extraordinarily high quality. "People pick up my flute and say, 'This is better.' Of course it's better; it's like getting into a custom-built motor car," he says.

Whatever the underlying reasons, the devotion of many musicians to rare or precious materials could help contribute to their extinction. Dalbergia melanoxylem, known as M'Pingo, grenadilla or African blackwood, and D. nigra, also called rosewood or palisander, are considered endangered by those countries that are developed enough to keep reliable data, says Richard F. Fisher, a forest scientist at Texas A&M University. Grenadilla is the wood of choice for clarinets, oboes and, increasingly, for wood flutes and piccolos; rosewood is a favorite for recorders.

Although the demand for fine musical instruments might seem too small to inspire a harvest would have a dramatic effect on the rain forest, Fisher asserts otherwise. To get to the remote regions where these trees grow, harvesters must clear rivers or build roads. "In many of these areas there are so many landless peasants looking for a piece of land to farm that after you remove just the few trees you want, they go in and invade because now they have access--you've created the access," Fisher says. "They cut down the rest of the forest... and start to grow crops."

Fisher adds that these tropical species are extremely difficult to raise on plantations. They take 60 years or more to reach maturity and tend to grow poorly when raised clustered together in stands, as their key defense against predation is being scarce in the forest.

Indeed, an instrument maker in Libertyville, Ill., Boosey and Hawkes, has been unsuccessful at replenishing M'Pingo trees, says FranÁois Kloc, a master craftsman there. To offer an alternative material that is also more resistant to cracking, the company developed a "green" line of oboes and clarinets. These instruments are made of M'Pingo sawdust and a patented mixture of fiber carbon and epoxy glue that is heat-treated and placed in an 80-pound (36-kilogram) press to give it the density of whole wood. This process enables the company to use all of the tree instead of only the prime 20 to 30 percent that was usable before. Old, damaged clarinets can also be recycled in a similar way to make new ones.

Whether such innovations will ultimately be widely accepted by music lovers remains to be seen. "Most musicians and many listeners believe without question that the material of which a wind instrument is made has a profound effect on its tone quality," Coltman remarks. "After 100 years, scientists have still convinced nobody."
Вот ссылка на работу Колтмана (о нем речь в статье): https://ccrma.stanford.edu/marl/Colt...ltman-1.06.pdf

Галвей наглядно демонстрирует разницу в материале, хе-хе. http://www.thegalwaynetwork.com/vanclass/Materials.mp3

Выводы исследователей-акустиков: http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/musFA...#windmaterials

Странички со ссылками на статьи, с общими выводами людей, потративших много времени на изучение вопроса.



My Conclusions

Differences between similar woodwind instruments made of different materials come from:

1. Differences in dimensions - bore and tone hole shape, and surface finish (see Fletcher, Coltman). This one is by FAR the most important.

2. Mechanical differences between materials (McGee, Fletcher). This is largely number one in disguise, e.g. if one material is easier to work accurately than another, its dimensions will probably be closer to the design; or if ebony is easier to bring to a high polish than cherry, ebony flutes will tend to have smoother bores.

3. The tendency for makers to put more effort into expensive materials (Fletcher). This is definitely number one in disguise.

4. Preconceptions and wishful thinking (Coltman and Linortner). Players will tend to get out of an instrument what they expect to get out of it.

5. Differences in feedback to the player. The player feels the sound vibrations through fingertips, lips and jaw; and he/she hears sound from embouchure hole (flute) or through the mouthpiece and jaw (reeds) and finger holes in different proportions from anyone further away. I have no idea how this feedback could be studied but as a player I am sure that it has an effect, even if it is mostly psychological -- which would mean it shades off into number four.
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  1. Старый комментарий
    Аватар для NikolayUB
    Статьи подтверждают, что стенки духовых инструментов тоже вибрируют, так что мне не померещилось, что корпус блокфлейты тоже вибрируют. не страшно то, что это имеет малое влияние на звук. Надо искать и уметь использовать все такие мелочи, много таких мелочей дают больше возможностей для выразительной игры.

    Я, будучи в отпуске, поискал способы воспроизведения таких вибраций, чтоб другие люди тоже смогли в этом убедиться.
    На денере и на 314-ой ямахе работает такой способ:
    Играется нота "ми" аппликатура 12, а указательный палец правой руки помещается на разные перемычки между дырками так, чтобы вибрация воздуха из дырочек не мешала анализу..
    Далее дуем по разному и пытаемся ощутить вибрацию перемычек. Достаточно быстро это получается. Заставить перемычки вибрировать легко в отличии от обратной части трубки, под большим пальцем правой руки вибрация у меня иногда бывает, но очень редко - это нужно особое вдохновение для ее получения. :)
    Запись от NikolayUB размещена 19.07.2010 в 17:03 NikolayUB вне форума
  2. Старый комментарий
    Аватар для Злое Сердце
    Статьи подтверждают, что стенки духовых инструментов тоже вибрируют
    Это где?

    Вибрация части флейты ниже используемого для создания звука воздушного столба не влияет на звук. То есть влияет так же, как влияет на звук колокола вибрация сарая возле колокольни.
    Запись от Злое Сердце размещена 19.07.2010 в 18:10 Злое Сердце вне форума
    Обновил(-а) Злое Сердце 19.07.2010 в 18:14
  3. Старый комментарий
    Аватар для NikolayUB
    Я не знаю, что там в теории, но звук определенно разный, независимо от того, влияет та самая ощущаемая пальцами вибрация на звук или не влияет. Возможно, это я в основном оказываю влияние на звук, а вибрация - это как обратная связь для меня. Мне все равно - главное, что результат ( разнообразие в звуке) есть.
    Запись от NikolayUB размещена 20.07.2010 в 13:03 NikolayUB вне форума
  4. Старый комментарий
    Аватар для Злое Сердце
    Возможно, это я в основном оказываю влияние на звук, а вибрация - это как обратная связь для меня
    Уже лучше :)
    Запись от Злое Сердце размещена 20.07.2010 в 16:18 Злое Сердце вне форума

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